Back to Ol Pejeta, I am brought to greet two of the world’s remaining seven Northern White Rhinos – Najin and Suni. I am not sure if they remember me from our last meeting however they give me a sniff and continue grazing their meal of hay. I learn that three of the seven are beyond breeding age and that crossing the Northern whites with the Southern is perhaps the only chance of keeping the bloodlines going. So far there seems to be little interest in mating.
The two huge southern whites in the enclosure keep trying to muscle in on the hay action. Their keepers raise their arms to shoo them away. It’s quite comical seeing these huge animals backing off from the keepers.
Poaching has become worse since I was last here and in South Africa the number of animals poached continues to increase.
We must reach rhino horn consumers and persuade them that the theft, killing, cruelty, and threat of extinction is not worth the imagined benefit they believe they are getting from using the horn. It will be their friends, relatives, neighbors, and business colleagues, who can persuade them. Perhaps that might be you. Please do what you can to save these incredible animals from oblivion.
The next morning, we see five magnificent white rhinos in the Park, sizing us up before crossing the path in front of our vehicle. It’s refreshing to see them as they should be, with their horns intact.
Back in Johannesburg, I meet Pelham Jones of the Private Rhino Owners Association. Pelham has been very active in assisting law enforcement officials track down poachers.
It is no longer the occasional shooting from an AK-47 obtained in a neighbouring civil war. Now, it might be a professional single shot from a high calibre hunting weapon or a dart from a veterinary tranquilizer. In some cases, helicopters have been used.
The war is escalating. Perhaps it’s time to defund it.
From my trip it’s clear that South Africans feel the same way about their rhinos as we Chinese do about our Pandas. They are a source of inspiration and great national pride as we brought them back from what looked like inevitable extinction.
For South Africa, it’s also an important source of tourism revenue, which is now under threat.
Unfortunately, a very small number of people in Asia are still buying rhino horn, either as speculation or for what they may believe is a medicine or a tonic. The horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up our hair and fingernails.
Legitimate traditional medicine in China ended rhino horn use in 1993.
As I leave Africa, I go with incredible positive memories of the beauty, the wide open spaces, the incredible diversity of large animals wiped out elsewhere on the planet, but also with sadness that the actions of just a few people in a world of 7 billion can jeopardize the future of the two largest animals walking the earth.
Collectively these people are sabotaging African economies and stealing from us all.
As the vast majority, we need to let them know that this is not acceptable and is damaging China’s relations with our friends and trading partners in Africa. We would be outraged if people were killing our pandas, we should be just as upset with what’s happening to rhinos and elephants in Africa.
From the conversations I’ve had, and the conversations WildAid has had with Chinese officials, there is a clear government commitment to collaborating to solve this. Peter Knights tells me Vietnam is also willing to collaborate.
But laws will only go so far. We need a drastic increase in awareness to reduce markets. Myself and other prominent Asians will be working with WildAid, African Wildlife Foundation, and other organizations to this end and we hope you will join us.
That means any of us who know people buying rhino horn or ivory need to ask them to stop, explain to them what is at stake and ask them to be part of the solution and not the problem.
Kruger National Park is one of Africa’s oldest national parks and South Africa’s flagship. It covers an area nearly the size of Israel and is home to roughly half the world’s white rhinos. It is manned by thousands of staff, who study and protect the animals, and look after the 1.4 million tourists who visit every year.
Kruger is home to between 9,000 and 12,000 white rhinos and approximately 600 black rhinos. Given the size of the park and the number of animals, it’s a difficult task to monitor the wildlife, even for the 2,500+ staff members.
The black rhinos are harder to keep and breed than the whites. They are more temperamental and solitary. From 100,000 in 1960, their numbers in Africa dropped to a low of 2,400 in 1995 before climbing back to 4,880 following a sales ban for rhino horn in China and other parts of Asia and increased protection in Africa.
We meet with the Director of Public Relations for South African National Parks, William Mabasa, who tells us the greatest challenge currently facing the park is poachers from both South Africa and Mozambique. Here elephants have been untouched, but rhinos are being hit constantly. Things have gotten so bad that now the South African army has been called in. But, finding poachers is still like looking for needles in a haystack.
Between 1990 and 2005, rhino poaching in South Africa averaged 14 animals a year according to trade monitoring group TRAFFIC and the populations were growing steadily. But in recent years, rhino poaching has risen again, with 440 animals killed in 2011, and this year’s figure expected to top 500.
On our very brief visit, we learn of seven rhinos recently killed in a reserve near Pilanesberg and four more in Kruger. Peter Knights of WildAid again apologizes for having to put me through the unenviable experience of seeing the results of this poaching.
We visit the body of a black rhino with Kruger’s Crime Scene Analysis team, searching for clues, like bullets or discarded debris, and collecting DNA samples so that if the horn is found, it can be traced back to here and not claimed to be an old horn.
The smell is so intense that I have to step away. This magnificent beast has been reduced to carrion for a horn.
On the way out of Daphne Sheldrick’s Orphanage, we turn a corner and come face-to-face with a large black rhino wandering loose. He snorts and comes to challenge us. It’s very intimidating.
Then his keeper arrives and starts tickling him and soothing him and he rolls to the ground in response. I am able to tickle him behind the ears. Another adopted orphan. A two-ton baby named Solio.
We leave Kenya stunned by the natural beauty, charmed by the welcome of the people, impressed by the elephants and their social interactions, the feeling that maybe we have more in common than I had thought, and shocked by the ferocity and brutality of the war being waged for their ivory.
From my conversations, it is clear that Kenya needs to pass legislation, which has languished in parliament for years, to increase the penalties for poaching. Currently, you can get a more severe punishment for stealing a few goats than for killing an elephant.
But they also need help from the international community, not just to support conservation work and enforcement efforts, but also to end the demand. This is a war that needs to be defunded and I hope we can raise public awareness to achieve this. As the WildAid slogan goes, “when the buying stops, the killing can, too.”
I have been heartened by the support that conservation work has received from both the people and government of China and I know we can do even more to help with increased enforcement and collaboration.
Back in Ol Pejeta, I visit some of the local community projects funded by the wildlife tourism. A school that now has a library and bank of computers some of the kids use to study (and play video games, I’m told).
The school teachers thanked me for coming and for all the good things China is doing in Kenya, like building a new road, but also appealed for our help in stopping the ivory poaching.
It’s clear that through the jobs provided by tourism, as well as the benefits to the local communities, wildlife is a very valuable resource for Kenya and many other African countries. Poaching robs communities of these benefits. When you buy ivory anywhere in the world, you are contributing to this theft.
Next stop, South Africa.
The baby elephants at Daphne Sheldrick’s Elephant Orphanage, on the edge of Nairobi National Park, have been orphaned by poaching and other causes. They are taken in, cared for, and ultimately reintroduced into the wild.
While the tragic circumstances of their arrival is depressing, the atmosphere and relationship the elephants have with their keepers is very moving.
For the new arrivals, they are so traumatized by losing their family that a keeper must sleep in their stall to keep them company. They are fed from bottles from behind a blanket to replicate the shade their mother’s belly would provide.
Not only do they get the care from the keeper, but the other elephants quickly adopt them and protect them as we’ve seen in the wild.
The latest addition, Kinango, barely comes up to my knee.
He’s only two weeks old and is here because of poaching – his mother was killed for her ivory tusks.
He pushes against me partly for contact, but also testing his strength.
He greedily guzzles the milk formula I feed him from a bottle.
Every day, a parade of elephants walks out into the park to feed and exercise. It’s a chaotic, comical bustle as they charge around looking for tasty leaves and wrestle with each other by locking trunks and shoving backwards and forwards.
They like to lean on you and push against you, but can also be very gentle with their amazing trunks – displaying both strength and precision. The little ones are quite hairy with dense black bristle. They lose this hair as they grow. I also notice how warm the babies are – their skin is thinner and they loose heat quickly so they are kept with blankets wrapped over them to keep out the morning chill.
Just like human babies, they need to be fed regularly – every three hours.
At one point, something in the bush scares them and they all stampede through our group and despite the chaos, they manage to avoid us. Though, everyone counts their toes afterwards since even these little guys weigh several hundred pounds.
The good news is the orphanage has perfected the process and if the bables can survive the first few weeks and take to food, they can usually make it to be eventually released to join a wild herd. The bad news is they may not be safe from poachers once back in the wild.
Visiting the orphanage is a fantastic experience. It is open to the public, which helps subsidize the considerable cost of this rehabilitation.
On the way out, we turn a corner to come face-to-face with large black rhino wandering loose.
Check back to find out what happens…
Back in Nairobi, we visit the headquarters of the Kenya Wildlife Service where I meet the Director, Julius Kipng’etich. He shows me a monument to rangers that have fallen in the line of duty. It’s a sobering moment as a reminder that this really is a war with casualties on both sides. There are no monuments to the poachers of course, but many have been killed in the process of stealing Kenya’s ivory.
We are taken to the “ivory room” in an underground vault where confiscated wildlife products are stored. It’s a veritable Aladdin’s cave of wildlife remains.
On the one side, a huge pile of skins, and on the other side, a stack of thousands of ivory tusks from miniature to enormous, with some covered in dirt as they had been buried to escape detection. Each one is marked with a weight and location. A sad testimony to the trade. If this was what was found, how much more was shipped out undetected?
They tell me that 3 tonnes of ivory have recently been stolen from Zambia’s stockpile and certainly this is like having gold bullion in a vault — very tempting for theft or corrupt activities. I’m told they will probably burn the confiscated ivory at some point.
After the graveyard of the ivory room, we meet some of the survivors at Daphne Sheldrick’s Elephant Orphanage, on the edge of Nairobi National Park.
More to come on that…
We then visit the Save the Elephants field station. A crushed pick-up sits outside as a monument to what can happen if you get on the wrong side of an elephant. Every panel was crushed as it was rolled over during a clash between two bulls.
Living next to elephants isn’t always easy — in some areas, crop raiding is a real problem. But here, where people rely on goats and camels rather than crops, there seems to be a peaceful co-existence.
En route, we see a mother lioness and two cubs sitting probably eight feet from our open vehicle. Peter Knights tells me as long as you remain in the vehicle, the lions will show no interest in you — step out and they’ll either run away or run after you. I’m a nice “medium rare” from the equatorial African sun, but I’d rather not be on the menu today!
As we watch, I notice movement behind me and see an elephant sniffing the air and then trumpeting and spreading its ears to make it seem much larger. We move out of the way and then the elephant shows who’s boss and clears the lions out shaking its head at them. They scamper off, occasionally turning back to consider trying their luck, but discretion is the better part of valor.
Sir Iain Douglas Hamilton tells me they know all of the elephant families and track their movements using radio collars that would break our backs, but are lightweight for the elephants. Using Google Earth, they are able to track an individual animal’s movements and identify corridors between parks, which can then be protected. At another site in the Maasai Mara, they have a male elephant named after me. I tell Iain I was a Rocket, not a Bull, but I am looking forward to being able to track my elephant namesake. I hope he stays safe.
Finally, we head out to record a Public Service Announcement with the elephants. They obligingly march right past me in the vehicle as if they know we need their help to get the message out to please not buy their ivory.